Antifreeze

Water additive.  An antifreeze is a chemical additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid. An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold environments and also achieves boiling-point elevation (“”anti-boil”") to allow higher coolant temperature.

Because water has good properties as a coolant, antifreeze is used in internal combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers and solar water heaters. The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from undergoing catastrophic deformation due to expansion when water turns to ice. Commercially, either the additive or the mixture may be referred to as antifreeze. Careful selection of an antifreeze can enable a wide temperature range in which the mixture remains in the liquid phase, which is critical to efficient heat transfer and the proper functioning of heat exchangers.  Antifreezes are commonly used for de-icing such as for aircraft wings.